The people of Awi have succeeded in preserving their age-old traditions that are handed down from generation to generation. In Awi farm land and soil fertility management systems employ three major types of strategies in order to manage the organic matter and chemical fertility of the cultivated soils: Mixed cropping rotational cropping and indigenous organic practices. Irrigation is the artificial application of water to soil for the purpose of crop production. The major purpose of this paper is, therefore, to bring out, to assess and analyze the indigenous soil fertility management systems as well as the indigenous managements of river waters for irrigation. In the course of the study, I have depended mainly on primary and secondary sources, as well as oral informants, and archival materials. For archives, I have used Debre Markos University Archive Center, Addis Ababa National Archives and Library Agency, Institute of Ethiopian Studies of Addis Ababa University and Awi Zone Agriculture Office. Indeed, gathering oral information from knowledgeable individuals through interviews was another important source data for the research. The interview was effectively addressed by qualitative approach through purposive sampling method. In the interview semi structured interview questions were designed for acquiring valuable information about the study. The age and the ability to remember the past events and the level of participation in the local affairs were given emphasis for the selection of informants. The data which I collected from oral sources were crosschecked with archival and secondary sources before interpretation. Thus, the consideration of the land tenure system and the social structure as well as taxation system in Agaw Meder (presently Awi Zone) helps to study and investigate not only the study area but also to comprehend other areas regarding the issue.
The Moderating Effect of Youth Empowerment Programmes Between Institutional Reputation and Skills Acquisition in Kano State, Nigeria
The capability of a country to accomplish a sustainable development is basically depend on the skills of its youthful segment, as well as its institutions. Thus, the objective of this paper is to examine the relationship of institutional reputation and skills acquisition moderated by youth empowerment program. A structured questionnaire was developed and distributed the respondents who were the beneficiaries of the programs drawn from the seven Skill Acquisition Institutes in the Kano State, Nigeria. 318 usable questionnaires were returned and analyzed. The study has used SPSS 20 for the assessment of the hypothesized model. The multiple and hierarchical regression analysis were employed for data analysis. The results discovered that there was a positive and significant relationship between institutional reputation and skills acquisition, and further study inferred that the effect of youth empowerment has positively but insignificantly influence institutional reputation towards skills acquisition. Other findings include the need to maintain a high degree of cooperation between institutions and industry in a country with high segments of youth facing major diﬃculties in searching adequate employments. The findings of the study are of a great value to both theory and practice and have vital implications for academicians, practitioners and policy makers.
The Effect of Strategic Decision-Making Processes in Determining the Strategic Orientation of Hotel Organizations: A Field Study in a Sample of Iraqi Hotels of the Highest Class
The research aims to shed light on the most important theoretical and field features of the concept of strategic
orientation and to indicate the dimensions and indicators through which the hotel organization can be judged
that it adopts the optimal strategic orientation. On facing and overcoming problems in hotel work in light of
recent changes, and consequently, these organizations have become in a position to adopt modern approaches to
strategic decision-making processes. Its views through a questionnaire prepared for this purpose and one of the
most important conclusions is that the strategic orientation translates the nature of the vision and mission of the
organization and the nature of the strategic goals. Therefore, the administrations face an important imperative
that appears in the necessity of deepening the understanding of this dimension, which is missing by many Iraqi
hotel administrations, which is what the researcher touched through the field study and one of the most prominent
Recommendations: It is necessary for hotel administrations to support efforts to deepen understanding of the
content of strategic decision-making processes My strategy, in a systematic scientific way, is far from
improvisation and emotion, which can be accomplished through the adoption of developmental training policies
and forums for the dissemination of strategic thought and research and scientific work.
Subject Review: Organizational Identification Of Business Organizations
The concept of Organizational Identification (OI) has had an interesting history, spanning nearly more than seven decades (1947-present). Although it was proposed in 1950 the concept remained static and stable until the early nineties. In 1970 it lost its identity and was classified under the definition of Attitudinal Obligation (ATOC) Hence, it is often referred to as "Cinderella Organizational Studies". In the late 1980s, organizational Identification was recognized as a unique construct, in order to distinguish it from other related constructs with a differential effect on individual and organizational outcomes. In a comprehensive review of the literature, this review consolidates key milestones in the evolution of organizational Identification over the past seven decades. This article highlights current research trends in the field of organizational homology identification, It raises questions about some of the trends that could pose a threat to the definition of basic organizational Identification from the past, It concludes by providing guidance for future research on identifying organizational Identification.
Face Threatening Act in Media Chat: A Discourse-Pragmatic Analysis
The purpose of this study is to investigate how face threatening acts are used in Donald Trump’s Victory speech. The study has examined the use of different speech acts (requests, offers, promises, etc.) to impose negative or positive face threat on either the speaker or the hearer, in order to obtain political objectives. The study is, therefore, based on the study of face threatening acts used by the former American president, Donald Trump, in his victory speech. The researcher also wants to examine whether positive or negative face threatening acts are being used more frequently by Trump. It is hypothesized that the American president, Donald Trump, uses negative face threatening acts more frequently than positive face threatening acts. The procedures followed by the researcher involves illustrating the adopted model of analysis of Brown and Levinson’s (1987) model on politeness theory, and collecting data. One speech by the former USA President, Donald Trump has been chosen. The researcher has discovered that Trump uses negative face threatening acts more than the positive one towards the hearer.
Sanctions on Russia and its Implications on Trade, Economy and Finance
The Russia-Ukraine war in February 2022 and the sanctions imposed on Russia have extensive geo-political and geo-economic repercussions on a global scale. In addition to impacting international power politics, it has altered the global economy in terms of the international commodity market, international trade, financial flows, and financial markets. The sanctions have reversed the progress of the global economy, which had just begun to recover from the pandemic recession. The US and EU have previously placed sanctions on Russia because of its war with Ukraine and its annexation of Crimea in 2014.
Management by Roaming and its Impact on the Level of Continuous Commitment: An Exploratory Study of the Opinions of a Sample of Teachers and Administrators in the Colleges of Tourism Sciences in Iraq
The two researchers aim through the current research to define the concept of management by roaming and the level of continuous commitment, as well as to show the impact of the relationship between them in the faculties of tourism sciences in Iraqi universities (Al-Mustansiriyah University, Mosul University, Karbala University). The research problem was: What is the extent of application of the management style by roaming in the colleges of tourism sciences in Iraq? And what is the effect of the level of continuous commitment from the teachers’ point of view, and the research started from a main hypothesis from which five sub-hypotheses emerged to explore the influence relationships between the research variables by analyzing the answers of the research sample, which included (74) teachers and administrators working in the colleges investigated, and data and information were collected Using the questionnaire, the data were analyzed using the statistical program (28.SPSS_V). The researchers reached a number of conclusions, the most important of which are: The manager, through his roaming in the organization, checks the safety and accuracy of the communication channels by matching the information received to him and comparing with the actual reality of the work.
Mensural Hygiene Management Practices Among Adolescent Girls
Menstruation is associated with a variety of beliefs and prohibitions in our country, different cultures have different perceptions regarding menstruation while it’s a normal phenomenon for every female which comes every month. But due to such beliefs, a menstrual girl is unclean, untouched, and dirty, resulting in a lack of awareness among adolescent females. Stress-related to menstruation and reproductive tract Infections are caused by insufficient menstrual hygiene habits. In our community, sexually transmitted illness and HIV/AIDS are not openly acknowledged, leaving youth susceptible. Mensural hygiene management refers to the management practices that are done by girls at the time of ‘their menstruation. At that time, numerous organisms are attracted from the body and multiply due to the warmth of the blood, which causes many infections like irritation, rashes, urinary tract infections, etc. There are many menstrual products available on the market to absorb the blood at the time of bleeding through the vagina. But regular use of such products can prevent us from many infections. So, it is important to make all girls and women aware of menstrual hygiene products and practices according to their needs and requirements. Many females are unaware of the sizes and absorbency of napkins and are unable to select their menstrual products based on their needs. And such women faced stains on their clothes. However, once they have a thorough understanding of the products, they will be able to easily understand and meet their needs.
Analysis of the Economic Performance of the Hotel Industry using the Break-Even Method: Case Study – Al -Mansour Hotel Company
The break-even point is concerned with studying the relationship between revenues, costs and profits at different levels of production, and it means determining the lowest level of production or level of sales that can be achieved for the company in which revenues are equal to costs as it does not achieve losses or profits, so that the lower the volume of sales at the break-even point, the greater the company's opportunities achieving profits.
Study of the Effect of Language Proficiency and Study Habits on Academic Achievement of Rural and Urban Students
Objectives of assessment in the language classroom are to measure the understanding of language, the ability to use it in different contexts, and the ability to assess aesthetic aspects. Assessment is an integral part of the learning-teaching process. Therefore, before assessing whether the child has acquired a skill or not, consider whether the child has been repeatedly given different opportunities to acquire that skill. Here are some basic pointers for assessment for classes 1st to 5th which can be modified as per the requirement of the child. By acquiring linguistic proficiency, the student is able to think of his general, specific and individual and group. To acquire linguistic proficiency, their study habits need to be developed through continuous practice. This affects their academic achievement. In the present research, the effect of language proficiency and study habits on academic achievement has been studied. According to research findings, language proficiency does not affect study habits, but study habits have an effect on academic achievement.